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Ten Rules for Asset Protection Planning

Start early, keep it simple, and don’t try to hide stuff from your creditors.

There’s a gambling saying that goes something like, “If you want to be a winner, you have to walk away from the table a winner.” One time-honored method of reaching this result is to systematically take your chips off the table as you win them, so that your potential for losses stays small.

Asset protection planning is all about taking chips off the table in good times, so that you still can walk away from the table a winner no matter what happens in bad times. Those who worry the most about asset protection are those who are the most likely to get sued; think obstetricians and, more recently, real estate investors here. But average folks often get caught up in difficult situations, and thus if you have something to protect then the topic of asset protection should at least cross your mind.
Technically, asset protection planning is the debtor’s side of creditor-debtor law. While creditors are concerned about the strategies and techniques of collection, debtors are interested in the strategies and techniques for protecting their most valuable assets from potential creditors.

But in this calculation, it is not just about protecting assets but also about making sure that one does not end up in jail for contempt or bankruptcy fraud for engaging in the process.

Keeping in mind the law school adage that “General rules are generally inapplicable”, the following 10 rules should always be kept in mind when you try to take your chips off the table.

1. Start Planning Before A Claim Arises

Many things you can do will effectively provide asset protection before a claim or liability arises, but few things will afterwards. That’s because what you do after a claim rises could be undone by “fraudulent transfer” law. Moreover, the point at which a claim arises is earlier than a layman might think—it is, for example, usually much earlier than when a demand letter or a process server shows up at the door.

2. Late Planning Usually Backfires

Asset protection planning after a claim arises is apt to make matters worse; think of it as getting a flu shot while you have the flu, and the shot itself making you even more woozy. It is a common misconception that the only thing a judge can do is to unwind a fraudulent transfer, leaving a debtor who unsuccessfully tried late planning no worse off than if he had done nothing. To the contrary, both the debtor and whoever assisted in the fraudulent transfer can become liable for the creditor’s attorney fees, and the debtor can lose the hope of getting a discharge in bankruptcy.

3. Asset Protection Planning Is Not A Substitute For Insurance

Asset protection planning should not be a substitute for liability and professional insurance, but rather should supplement insurance. It is a myth that asset protection plans invariably scare away plaintiffs, and an asset protection plan doesn’t pay legal fees to defend against a lawsuit. Insurance also supplements asset protection planning, since it can help a debtor survive a claim a fraudulent transfer claim. If you get sued, let the insurance company pay to defend it and pay to settle it — that’s what you’re paying the premiums for.

4. Personal Assets Are For Trusts; Business Assets Are For Business Entities

Business entities such as corporations, partnerships and LLCs are meant to be vehicles for commercial operations, not to act as personal piggybanks. When personal assets are placed into a business entity, the potential for the entity to be pierced by a creditor on some theory or another, such as alter ego, increases exponentially. The place to put personal assets is in a trust. There is a long and solid body of law that protects trust assets—when the trust is properly drafted and funded. And please don’t name the entity the “Family” Partnership or LLC, unless your family is famous for making sausage or some such.

5. Too Much Control Is A Bad Thing

Asset protection planning attempts to reach a balance between giving the client sufficient control so that the assets do not disappear, but at the same time not so much control that a creditor can successfully argue that the debtor and the asset protection structure are effectively one-and-the-same and thus should be disregarded on alter ego or some similar theory.

6. Asset Protection Planning And Tax & Estate Planning Don’t Always Jive

Often asset protection planning and estate planning work together, but sometimes they are at odds and what might be a good idea for estate planning may not be such a hot idea for asset protection. For example, the making of gifts (to children and other prospective heirs) is common in estate planning but anathema in asset protection planning since gifts are often easy to set aside as fraudulent transfers. Meanwhile, homestead exemptions are a very powerful asset protection planning tool, but this usually traps the value of the home in the debtor’s estate.

7. Your Money May Be Offshore But You Are Here

Recent cases have recognized the power of courts to require debtors to bring their money back to the U.S. through what are known as “repatriation orders”. If the debtor does not comply with a repatriation order, a court may issue a bench warrant for contempt of court and hold you in contempt (and in jail) until the money does come back, or for many years. The record? It is 14 years in jail served by former corporate lawyer H. Beatty Chadwick who refused to repatriate money from overseas to pay alimony to his ex-wife.

8. Don’t Count On Bankruptcy As The Last Refuge Of A Desperate Debtor

Once upon a time, bankruptcy was akin to a nice warm shower that allowed a debtor to wash all debts away while still retaining a goodly amount of assets. Not anymore. In 2005, the bankruptcy laws changed to become a cold acid bath that leaves debtors with bare bones and little flesh. State homestead exemptions have been substantially limited, and other new provisions in the bankruptcy code and new bankruptcy case law can make parts of asset protection plans very difficult to protect in bankruptcy. Plus, bankruptcy judges have some of the strongest powers to make debtors cough up assets.

9. If You Can’t Explain It, It Will Never Work

Many asset protection plans become so complicated that not even the client can explain how assets are held or how those assets were transferred. But such questions can be expected in depositions or a debtor’s examination, and a failure to fully and clearly explain what happened and why will make the court very suspicious and potentially give the court grounds to begin disregarding entities or setting aside transfers. Most judges start asking themselves, “What is really going on here?” If the structure and transfers are too complicated and not well explained, there is a much higher chance that the judge will find fraud on creditors. Indeed, the best asset protection plans are often simple plans, such as creating and funding an irrevocable trust for the benefit of their children.

10. Usually Everything Sees The Light Of Day

Asset protection planning should be based on the presumption that the entirety of the planning and its purpose will eventually become known to creditors, because one way or another it usually does. Asset protection plans that require secrecy will face a plethora of problems, from how not to disclose the structure or activity on tax returns, to how to keep a mad ex-spouse or disgruntled employee from talking to creditors. And don’t even think about going into bankruptcy without making a full disclosure about assets and transfers. The failure to make a full disclosure will usually lead to a denial of discharge, and the failure to make a truthful disclosure can amount to charges of perjury and bankruptcy fraud.

Nevada Homestead Provision

As in every other state, the public policy of the State of Nevada is to avoid leaving its citizens homeless and penniless because of a negative result in a lawsuit. So the state legislature, codified under NRS 21, has provided a list of assets that cannot be taken from you by a creditor (a person or entity who has obtained a judgment against you). Relative to the rest of the country, Nevada is generous when it comes to these “exempt assets.” The state is especially benevolent in protecting your house.

NRS 21.090(l) provides that your homestead is exempt from execution to satisfy a judgment. NRS 115 governs how to make the homestead declaration effective. Simply desiring it to be true isn’t enough.

To qualify, title must be in your name (or the name of your revocable living trust, provided you are its beneficiary), and you must reside on the property.

You can certainly pay one of the many homestead recording services who will stuff your mailbox in the first few weeks after your purchase or title change on your property. They charge $25 to $50 plus the county recording fee ($18 in Clark County). But you can also do it yourself. The county provides the form to do so here and also offers a nice overview on what’s involved here. You’ll need your property’s parcel number (you should be able to find that on a property tax notice or by pulling up the recorded deed on your propertyhere). Then check off your filing status, the type of property you are declaring as your homestead, and the name on title. You’ll also need the legal description of your property which you’ll find on your most recent deed. From there you’ll sign before a notary and mail it to or visit the recorder’s office for recording.

I include preparation and recording at no charge (aside from the recording fee) for my estate planning clients.
A few more notes about homestead declarations:

  • Per NRS 115.020(5), moving an already “homesteaded” property into your revocable trust, so long as you are its beneficiary, will not require you to re-file. However, if the beneficial owner changes, re-filing is necessary to secure the protection.
  • The exemption protects you up to $550,000 in equity, not just fair market value.
  • Obviously, claiming homestead protection will not protect you from your bank’s mortgage or home equity line of credit (NRS 115.010(3)), among a few other specific creditors.
  • A creditor can still place a lien against your property, but has no power to force its sale. However, if the property’s equity is greater than $550,000, then a judicial partition/forced sale is possible.
  • OJ Simpson famously took advantage of Florida’s unlimited homestead protection. It allowed him to move there, dump a ton of cash in a sprawling and expensive estate, and have it all protected from civil judgments that were eventually entered against him.

In short, taking an hour or so to follow through on filing a homestead declaration is worth your time. It’s a relatively simple process, inexpensive, and along with your homeowner’s insurance policy, the first line of defense in asset protection.

Re-Title Assets To A Trust

Do I need to retitle ALL of my bank accounts into the name of my trust?

As has been mentioned before, funding a trust is the hand to the glove of trust instrument preparation. Just because you have your revocable trust instrument drafted and executed doesn’t guarantee your beneficiaries will not have to probate your estate. You have to actually change title of your assets into the name of the trust to complete the process. It’s a critical step and a subject I emphasize and review the process of during each document signing with my clients.

But the question often arises, do I need to transfer ALL of my liquid accounts into the trust? No, so long as you are aware of the consequences. Take a bank account, for instance. You have a couple options. Do nothing and upon the death of the account owners the bank will require a court order appointing the rightful beneficiary to those funds. Depending on the balance of that account and/or the size of the probate estate, the could require a significant amount of expense and time to access those funds.

The next best option is to name a “Payable on Death” (aka POD) beneficiary. Now the account is not a probate asset because, by operation of contract, the funds will pass to the named beneficiary upon presentation to the bank of a death certificate and some signed forms. However, should the owner not die, but merely be incapacitated, the account will be frozen since the owner is unable to access the funds him or herself. Were the account owned by the trust and appropriate language was found in the trust instrument, then the successor trustee could access those funds to pay bills or other needs in the stead of the principal. In addition, should the named beneficiary be financially irresponsible or already subject to execution of a civil judgment, those funds could disappear quickly. Finally, should the undocumented intent of the POD designation be that the beneficiary is to distribute those funds among others, that beneficiary could be stuck with the gift tax bill along with the responsibility of dealing with unhappy potential heirs.

The best way to alleviate the above problems and many more is to retitle all accounts into the name of the trust. Now, of course there are certainly circumstances that call for doing something different, but such a decision should only be made after considering all the ramifications of doing so. In fact, I have advised just such a course of action for a client recently. If I am retained to advise and draft your estate plan, I will walk you through the proper course of action for all of your assets.

Thousands Of Small Businesses Will Also Start Losing Their Current Health Policies Under Obamacare

Thousands Of Small Businesses Will Also Start Losing Their Current Health Policies Under Obamacare. Here’s Why

President Obama’s simple line “If you like your current health plan you can keep it” is haunting him amidst reports that 3.5 million Americans who purchase health plans on their own, in the “individual” market, have lost that coverage as a result of Obamacare.

Very soon, small businesses will be faced with a similar fate.

They will also see their health plans canceled as a result of Obamacare.

Small businesses, with fewer than 50 employees, are not forced to provide coverage under Obamacare.

But when they do, policies sold in the small group market are subject to the same regulations now forcing the termination of millions of health plans sold directly to consumers.

But late last year, businesses that employed fewer than 50 employees began exploiting a loophole they found in the Obamacare text. If the businesses renewed their policies early, before the end of 2013, then those plans would not be subject to Obamacare’s costly mandates for a full year, in many cases until December 31, 2014.

But that clock is already ticking. Starting in October 2014, many employees of small businesses will start getting the same notices that are now being mailed to individuals, informing that their existing health plans are also being cancelled.

These small businesses will be faced with a bleak choice.

Find another policy that’s compliant with Obamacare, but also more costly. Or put their employees into the Obamacare exchange.

For many of the largest insurers, including Aetna, United Healthcare, Wellpoint, and Cigna; the small group market is among their most lucrative insurance products. For this reason, these big insurers are likely to try and hold onto some of this business.

But they will not be able to fully shield businesses from the new costs.

While a smaller percentage of business plans may get cancelled (relative to the fraction of individual market plans that are now being terminated) the small group market is nonetheless much bigger than the individual market. Even if Obamacare materially affects a smaller fraction of the business plans, it will still encumber far more people than the 3.5 million individuals now losing coverage.

The health plans offered by small businesses are being affected later than the policies sold in the individual market because of a loophole in the law. It let them skirt the full impact of Obamacare past the January 1, 2014 deadline that the individual market policies are now finding themselves subject to.

Insurers are now giving notice that they are dumping those individual market policies to meet that January 1 termination deadline (they need to give consumers 90 days notice under HIPPA rules). In contrast, by renewing their policies “off cycle” the small businesses were able to lock in another year before they have to comply with Obamacare. They won’t be subject to the law’s mandates until the end of 2014.

This means that employees of small businesses wont get their cancellation notices until October or November of 2014. That’s because these plans are subject to ERISA rules. These regulations require businesses and health plans to notify consumers 60 days before they plan to change or terminate policies. News of cancellations will go directly to employees, just like the termination notices now arriving in the mail.

News of this looming catastrophe could start to filter out earlier. Health plans have to submit their products to state insurance commissioners (and get rates approved) in the spring and summer of 2014. That’s when politicians will start to get a more precise view on how many policies will be canceled and what the new rates will be.

How much will small businesses be affected once they are also made subject to the full brunt of Obamacare? Aetna has already warned in its marketing materials that dramatic increases in premiums might be in the offing. “Factors such as essential health benefits, maximum plan deductibles, the application of new taxes and fees and new rating rules will combine to push insurance premiums up substantially for some small businesses,” the insurer said.

In December, Aetna Chief Executive Mark Bertolini said he expects that premiums for individuals or small groups seeking coverage on health insurance exchanges will rise by 20% to 50% in 2014, after the grandfathering expires.

This is what really has Democrats so worried. These cancellation notices are going to hit small businesses one month before the next election.

Congress could introduce legislation to allow the existing small business plans to be extended indefinitely. Most of these are good plans already subject to strict state regulation. There is no reason Obamacare should force changes.

It’s another painful blow set to befall consumers as a result of Obamacare.

Every time another layer of this law gets peeled away, or another provision gets implemented, another block of Americans gets harmed.

Small business policies are the next to fall.

Scott Gottlieb

Modest Retirement Account Changes

Modest Retirement

The amount workers can contribute to 401(k)s and individual retirement accounts will stay the same. Inflation, as measured by the consumer price index, didn’t increase enough to justify raising the contribution caps.

“Some pension limitations such as those governing 401(k) plans and IRAs will remain unchanged because the increase in the consumer price index didn’t meet the statutory thresholds for their adjustment,” according to a statement from the Internal Revenue Service.

But some of the income thresholds that allow savers to qualify for tax deductions and credits will increase next year. Here’s a look at how 401(k) and IRA rules will change in 2014:

Limits for 401(k) contributions unchanged. Taxpayers may contribute up to $17,500 to their 401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans and the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan in 2014, which is the same amount as in 2013. The catch-up contribution limit for employees age 50 and older is also unchanged at $5,500. In 2012, 11 percent of 401(k) participants contributed the maximum possible amount, according to a Vanguard study of 2,000 401(k) plans with 3 million participants. Some 401(k) plans also have lower plan-specific caps on contributions.

IRA contribution limits unaffected. The limit on IRA contributions will continue to be $5,500 in 2014. Individuals age 50 and older can contribute an additional $1,000, the same catch-up contribution as in 2013. Just under half (47 percent) of IRA savers contributed the maximum amount in 2011, according to an Employee Benefit Research Institute analysis of 20.5 million accounts.

Larger IRA income limits. The tax deduction for traditional IRA contributions is phased out for savers with a workplace retirement plan who have modified adjusted gross incomes between $60,000 and $70,000, up from $59,000 and $69,000 in 2013. The income phase-out range for married couples with retirement accounts at work will also climb by $1,000 to between $96,000 and $116,000.

For investors who don’t have a workplace retirement plan but are married to someone who does, the tax deduction is phased out if the couple’s income is between $181,000 and $191,000, which is $3,000 more than in 2013.

Higher Roth IRA income cutoffs. Workers can earn $2,000 more ($3,000 for couples) in 2014 and still be eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA. The AGI phase-out range for Roth IRAs is $114,000 to $129,000 for singles and heads of household and $181,000 to $191,000 for married couples. However, investors who earn more than these income limits may still be able to convert traditional IRA assets to a Roth. “Even if you are phased out by income from making a Roth contribution, you can contribute to a traditional IRA that is nondeductible and then convert that to a Roth,” says Lara Lamb, a certified financial planner and founder of Lamb Financial Planning in Encino, Calif. “However, you need to be aware that the conversion might be taxed.”

Bigger saver’s credit threshold. Low- and moderate-income workers who save for retirement in 401(k)s and IRAs are eligible to claim a tax credit that can be worth as much as $1,000 for individuals and $2,000 for married couples. Couples can claim the saver’s credit until their AGI exceeds $60,000, which is $1,000 more than in 2013. The income limits are $45,000 for heads of household and $30,000 for individuals, up from $44,250 and $29,500, respectively, last year. Saver’s credits were claimed on 6.1 million tax returns in 2010, but most people received small benefits. The average saver’s credits were $122 for individuals, $165 for heads of household and $204 for couples.

Credit goes to Emily Brandon.

IRS Announces 2014 Tax Brackets

IRS Announces 2014 Tax Brackets, Standard Deduction Amounts And More

The Internal Revenue Service has announced the annual inflation adjustments for a number of provisions for the year 2014, including tax rate schedules, tax tables and cost-of-living adjustments for certain tax items.

These are the applicable numbers for the tax year 2014. That means the year starting (gulp) in just a few months. They are NOT the numbers and rates that you’ll use to prepare your 2013 tax returns in 2014 (the season is starting late this year). These numbers and rates are those you’ll use to prepare your 2014 tax returns in 2015. Got it? Good. Onto the highlights:

Tax Brackets. The big news is, of course, the new tax brackets. Here’s what’s on tap for 2014:

Single Taxpayers:

Single Taxpayers

Married Filing Jointly and Surviving Spouses:

Married Filing

Head Of Household:

Head Of Household

Married Filing Separately:

Married Filing Seperate

(See how they compare to the 2013 brackets here.)

Standard Deductions. The standard deduction rises to $6,200 for single taxpayers and married taxpayers filing separately. The standard deduction is $12,400 for married couples filing jointly and $9,100 for heads of household. Here’s how those rates compare to 2013:

Standard Deductions

Standard Deductions

Itemized Deductions. The limitation for itemized deductions – the Pease limitations, named after former Rep. Don Pease (D-OH) – claimed on individual returns for tax year 2014 will begin with incomes of $254,200 or more ($305,050 for married couples filing jointly). The Pease limitations were slated to be reduced beginning in 2006 and eliminated in 2010; as with the other tax cuts, the elimination was extended through the end of 2012. The limitations were brought back in 2013 at the original thresholds, indexed for inflation. The result of those changes is basically an increase in the top marginal tax rates.

Personal Exemptions. The personal exemption amount is $3,950 in 2014, up from $3,900 in 2013. Phase-outs for personal exemption amounts (sometimes called “PEP”) begin with adjusted gross incomes (AGI) of $254,200 for individuals and $305,050 for married couples filing jointly; the personal exemptions phase out completely at $376,700 for individual taxpayers ($427,550 for married couples filing jointly.)

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Exemptions. The AMT exemption amount for tax year 2014 is $52,800 for individuals and $82,100 for married couples filing jointly. That compares to $51,900 and $80,800, respectively for 2013. In years past, the AMT was subject to a last minute scramble by Congress to “patch” the exemption but as part of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA), the AMT is permanently adjusted for inflation – that’s why you see it in this list.

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). For 2014, the maximum EITC amount available is $3,304 for taxpayers filing jointly with one child; $5,460 for two children; $6,143 for three or more children and $496 for no children.

Child Tax Credit. For taxable years beginning in 2014, the value used to determine the amount of credit that may be refundable is $3,000 (the credit amount has not changed).

Kiddie Tax. For 2014, the threshold for the kiddie tax – meaning the amount a child can take home without paying any federal income tax – remains at $1,000.

Adoption Credit. For taxable years beginning in 2014, the credit allowed for an adoption of a child with special needs is $13,190; the maximum credit allowed for other adoptions is the amount of qualified adoption expenses up to $13,190. Phase outs do apply beginning with MAGI in excess of $197,880.

Hope Scholarship Credit. In 2014, the Hope Scholarship Credit cannot exceed $2,500. The amount you can claim is equal to 100% of qualified tuition and related expenses not in excess of $2,000 plus 25% of those expenses in excess of $2,000 but not to exceed $4,000.

Flexible Spending Accounts. The annual dollar limit on employee contributions to employer-sponsored healthcare flexible spending accounts (FSA) remains at $2,500 for 2014.

Individual Retirement Account Contributions. The $5,500 limit on IRA contributions remains the same in 2014.

Federal Estate Tax Exemption. The exclusion amount for estates of decedents who die in 2014 is $5,340,000, up from a total of $5,250,000 in 2013.

Federal Gift Tax Exclusion. The annual exclusion for gifts remains at $14,000 for 2014.
Kelly Phillips

12 IRS Audit Red Flags

Here are twelve hot spots on your return that can raise the chances of scrutiny by the IRS.

Ever wonder why some tax returns are eyeballed by the Internal Revenue Service while most are ignored? The IRS audits only slightly more than 1% of all individual tax returns annually. The agency doesn’t have enough personnel and resources to examine each and every tax return filed during a year. And its resources are shrinking…the number of enforcement staff dropped nearly 6% last year, partly due to budget cuts. So the odds are pretty low that your return will be picked for review. And, of course, the only reason filers should worry about an audit is if they are fudging on their taxes .

However, the chances of being audited or otherwise hearing from the IRS increase depending upon various factors, including your income level, whether you omitted income, the types of deductions or losses you claimed, the business in which you’re engaged and whether you own foreign assets . Math errors may draw IRS inquiry, but they’ll rarely lead to a full-blown exam. Although there’s no sure way to avoid an IRS audit, you should be aware of red flags that could increase your chances of drawing unwanted attention from the IRS.

1. Making too much money

Although the overall individual audit rate is about 1.03%, the odds increase dramatically for higher-income filers. 2012 IRS statistics show that people with incomes of $200,000 or higher had an audit rate of 3.70%, or one out of every 27 returns. Report $1 million or more of income? There’s a one-in-eight chance your return will be audited. The audit rate drops significantly for filers making less than $200,000: Less than 1% (0.94%) of such returns was audited during 2012, and the vast majority of these exams were conducted by mail. We’re not saying you should try to make less money — everyone wants to be a millionaire. Just understand that the more income shown on your return, the more likely it is that you’ll be hearing from the IRS.

2. Failing to report all taxable income

The IRS gets copies of all 1099s and W-2s you receive, so make sure you report all required income on your return. IRS computers are pretty good at matching the numbers on the forms with the income shown on your return. A mismatch sends up a red flag and causes the IRS computers to spit out a bill. If you receive a 1099 showing income that isn’t yours or listing incorrect income, get the issuer to file a correct form with the IRS.

3. Taking large charitable deductions

We all know that charitable contributions are a great write-off and help you feel all warm and fuzzy inside. However, if your charitable deductions are disproportionately large compared with your income, it raises a red flag. That’s because IRS computers know what the average charitable donation is for folks at your income level. Also, if you don’t get an appraisal for donations of valuable property, or if you fail to file Form 8283 for donations over $500, the chances of audit increase. And if you’ve donated a conservation easement to a charity, chances are good that you’ll hear from the IRS. Be sure to keep all your supporting documents, including receipts for cash and property contributions made during the year, and abide by the documentation rules. And attach Form 8283 if required.

4. Claiming the home office deduction

Like Willie Sutton robbing banks (because that’s where the money is), the IRS is drawn to returns that claim home office write-offs because it has found great success knocking down the deduction and driving up the amount of tax collected for the government. If you qualify, you can deduct a percentage of your rent, real estate taxes, utilities, phone bills, insurance and other costs that are properly allocated to the home office. That’s a great deal. And beginning with 2013 returns, which will be filed in 2014, you have a simplified option for claiming this deduction. The write-off can be based on a standard rate of $5 per square foot of space used for business, with a maximum deduction of $1,500. To take advantage of this tax benefit, you must use the space exclusively and regularly as your principal place of business. That makes it difficult to successfully claim a guest bedroom or children’s playroom as a home office, even if you also use the space to do your work. “Exclusive use” means that a specific area of the home is used only for trade or business, not also for the family to watch TV at night. Don’t be afraid to take the home office deduction if you’re entitled to it. Risk of audit should not keep you from taking legitimate deductions. If you have it and can prove it, then use it.

5. Claiming rental losses

Normally, the passive loss rules prevent the deduction of rental real estate losses. But there are two important exceptions. If you actively participate in the renting of your property, you can deduct up to $25,000 of loss against your other income. But this $25,000 allowance phases out as adjusted gross income exceeds $100,000 and disappears entirely once your AGI reaches $150,000. A second exception applies to real estate professionals who spend more than 50% of their working hours and 750 or more hours each year materially participating in real estate as developers, brokers , landlords or the like. They can write off losses without limitation. But the IRS is scrutinizing rental real estate losses, especially those written off by taxpayers claiming to be real estate pros. The agency will check to see whether they worked the necessary hours, especially in cases of landlords whose day jobs are not in the real estate business.

6. Deducting business meals, travel and entertainment

Schedule C is a treasure trove of tax deductions for self-employeds. But it’s also a gold mine for IRS agents, who know from experience that self-employeds sometimes claim excessive deductions. History shows that most underreporting of income and overstating of deductions are done by those who are self-employed. And the IRS looks at both higher-grossing sole proprietorships and smaller ones. Big deductions for meals, travel and entertainment are always ripe for audit. A large write-off here will set off alarm bells, especially if the amount seems too high for the business . Agents are on the lookout for personal meals or claims that don’t satisfy the strict substantiation rules. To qualify for meal or entertainment deductions, you must keep detailed records that document for each expense the amount, the place, the people attending, the business purpose and the nature of the discussion or meeting. Also, you must keep receipts for expenditures over $75 or for any expense for lodging while traveling away from home. Without proper documentation, your deduction is toast.

7. Claiming 100% business use of a vehicle

Another area ripe for IRS review is use of a business vehicle . When you depreciate a car, you have to list on Form 4562 what percentage of its use during the year was for business. Claiming 100% business use of an automobile is red meat for IRS agents. They know that it’s extremely rare for an individual to actually use a vehicle 100% of the time for business, especially if no other vehicle is available for personal use. IRS agents are trained to focus on this issue and will scrutinize your records. Make sure you keep detailed mileage logs and precise calendar entries for the purpose of every road trip. Sloppy recordkeeping makes it easy for the revenue agent to disallow your deduction. As a reminder, if you use the IRS’ standard mileage rate, you can’t also claim actual expenses for maintenance, insurance and other out-of-pocket costs. The IRS has seen such shenanigans and is on the lookout for more.

8. Writing off a loss for a hobby activity

Your chances of “winning” the audit lottery increase if you have wage income and file a Schedule C with large losses. And if the loss-generating activity sounds like a hobby — horse breeding, car racing and such — the IRS pays even more attention. Agents are specially trained to sniff out those who improperly deduct hobby losses. Large Schedule C losses are always audit bait, but reporting losses from activities in which it looks like you’re having a good time all but guarantees IRS scrutiny You must report any income you earn from a hobby, and you can deduct expenses up to the level of that income. But the law bans writing off losses from a hobby. For you to claim a loss, your activity must be entered into and conducted with the reasonable expectation of making a profit. If your activity generates profit three out of every five years (or two out of seven years for horse breeding), the law presumes that you’re in business to make a profit, unless IRS establishes otherwise. If you’re audited, the IRS is going to make you prove you have a legitimate business and not a hobby. So make sure you run your activity in a businesslike manner and can provide supporting documents for all expenses.

9. Running a cash business

Small business owners , especially those in cash-intensive businesses — think taxis, car washes, bars, hair salons, restaurants and the like — are a tempting target for IRS auditors. Experience shows that those who receive primarily cash are less likely to accurately report all of their taxable income. The IRS has a guide for agents to use when auditing cash-intensive businesses, telling how to interview owners and noting various indicators of unreported income.

10. Failing to report a foreign bank account

The IRS is intensely interested in people with offshore accounts, especially those in tax havens, and tax authorities have had success getting foreign banks to disclose account information. The IRS has also used voluntary compliance programs to encourage folks with undisclosed foreign accounts to come clean — in exchange for reduced penalties. The IRS has learned a lot from these programs and has collected a boatload of money (we’re talking billions of dollars).

Failure to report a foreign bank account can lead to severe penalties, and the IRS has made this issue a top priority. Make sure that if you have any such accounts, you properly report them. This means filing Treasury Department Form 90-22.1 by June 30 to report foreign accounts that total over $10,000 at any time during the prior year. And those with lots more financial assets abroad may also have to attach IRS Form 8938 to their timely filed tax returns.

11. Engaging in currency transactions

The IRS gets many reports of cash transactions in excess of $10,000 involving banks, casinos, car dealers and other businesses, plus suspicious-activity reports from banks and disclosures of foreign accounts. A report by Treasury inspectors concluded that these currency transaction reports are a valuable source of audit leads for sniffing out unreported income. The IRS agrees, and it will make greater use of these forms in its audit process. So if you make large cash purchases or deposits, be prepared for IRS scrutiny. Also, be aware that banks and other institutions file reports on suspicious activities that appear to avoid the currency transaction rules (such as persons depositing $9,500 in cash one day and an additional $9,500 in cash two days later).

12. Taking higher-than-average deductions

If deductions on your return are disproportionately large compared with your income, the IRS may pull your return for review. But if you have the proper documentation for your deduction, don’t be afraid to claim it. There’s no reason to ever pay the IRS more tax than you actually owe

Joy Taylor